- There is no standard referencing style used at ANU.
- A College or school may have a preferred style, but it is not uncommon for particular lecturer to require a different style.
- Refer to your individual course outline or ask your lecturer if you are unsure which style to use.
- Style guides give you examples of different types of sources and examples of how to format the citations and references.
Footnotes where numbers (slightly above the line) are inserted in your text at the end of a sentence or immediately following a direct or indirect quotation. The information about the source of each numbered reference is given at the bottom of each page of your text followed by a complete bibliographic list at the end of the paper.
In text (author date) where all references are cited in the body of your text. The references are brief (surname, year of publication, page number) and the full citation is listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper.
(There are a number of referencing software tools which will automatically apply the chosen referencing style in your document. ANU offers EndNote for all staff and students. More information and training is available through the ANU Library.)
A general referencing tool can assist in understanding and using referencing styles. Useful examples include:
Referencing style guides give more detailed and specific guidelines for a particular referencing style.
AGLC (Australian Guide to Legal Citation)
|Library resource:||Australian Guide to Legal Citation, 3rd ed.|
|Online resource:||Australian Guide to Legal Citation, 3rd ed (pdf, 3.9 MB).|
APA (American Psychological Association)
|Library resource:||The Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.|
|Online resource:||APA (American Psychological Association)|
Chicago Manual of Style
|Library resource:||The Chicago manual of style, 16th ed.|
|Online resource:||Chicago Manual of Style Online|
|Library resource:||Style manual for authors, editors and printers|
|Online resource:||University of Melbourne (re:cite)
University of Southern Queensland
MLA (Modern Language Association of America)
|Library resource:||MLA style manual and guide to scholarly publishing, 3rd ed.
MLA Handbook for writers of research papers, 4th ed.
Everything You Need to Know About MLA Citations [electronic resource].
|Online resource:||Purdue online MLA Formatting and Style Guide|
Vancouver is a footnoting referencing system sometimes used in the health sciences. Like the Harvard system there is no official style guide, but the US National Library of Medicine's style guide is now considered the most authoritative manual on this type of referencing.
|Online resource:||Citing Medicine, ed
University of Queensland (pdf 324.11 KB)